Prevalence of Hookah Smoking in Relation to Religiosity and Familial Support in College Students of Tabriz, northwest of Iran

Asghar MohammadPoorasl, Abbas Abbasi Ghahramanloo, Hamid Allahverdipour, Jabiz Modaresi Esfeh


Background: Hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among youth and young adults and has been identified as an emerging threat to public health. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian college students.

Methods: This study took place in Tabriz (northwest of Iran) in April and May 2011. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1837 college students. Data was collected in a survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure religious belief, parental support and risk taking behaviors including hookah smoking. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis.

Results: The prevalence of hookah smoking was 8.5% (CI95%: 7.3-9.9). After adjustment, being male (OR= 2.01), living in single house in comparison with living with parents (OR= 2.22), smoking (OR= 5.96) and ever drug abuse (OR= 3.02) were factors associated with students’ hookah use.

Conclusion: Our results showed a low prevalence of hookah smoking in Iranian college female students and revealed some of its associated factors. We demonstrated the co-occurrence of risky behaviors which emphasizes the importance of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing different high risk behaviors simultaneously.


Water-pipe; Substance abuse; Familial support;Religiosity;Risk-taking behaviors; College students

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