6 Amiri

JRHS 2010; 10(1):42-46

Copyright © Journal of Research in Health Science        

Job Satisfaction and Its Influential Factors

Mohammad Amiria*, Ahmad Khosravib, Abbas Ali MokhtariC

a Health Services Management, Shahroud University of Medical Science, Shahroud, Iran

b Research Center for Health-Related Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

c Department of Occupational Health, Shahroud University of Medical Science, Shahroud, Iran

*Corresponding author: Amiri M (PhD), E-mail addresses: M_amiri_71@yahoo.com

Received: 8 September 2009, Revised: 6 October 2009, Accepted: 15 January 2010, Available online: 20 June 2010

Abstract                

Background: This study aimed at determining the job satisfaction level of the staff in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), northern Iran, and its influential factors.                

Methods: In this descriptive study, conducted in 2008, the participants were 384 workers in SUMS selected through simple random sampling procedure. The par­ticipants received a 33-item questionnaire in a Likert format (8 general items and 25 items related to job satisfaction facets). The collected data in form of frequen­cies and percentages were analyzed with SPSS software.

Results: 53.4% of interviewees were female and more than 60% had associate or higher degrees. 42.6% had less than 10 yr and 30.9% had 20 to 30 yr of job experience, respectively. The mean of the overall satisfaction was 13.02 out of 20. Regarding the facets of job satisfaction, work, coworkers, supervisor, and pro­motion had the highest means, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correla­tion coefficients showed a significant relationship between overall satisfaction and the facets (P= 0.001). Analysis of variance also showed significant difference in overall satisfaction based on organizational units; however, no significant rela­tionship was observed between overall satisfaction and gender, degree, age, job experience and type of employment.

Conclusion: Improvement of promotion process, training and qualifying manag­ers, observing meritocracy principles in appointments, using  cooperative man­agement, creating convivial and friendly atmosphere and improving work envi­ronment conditions, have brought about an increase in overall satisfaction of em­ployees in SUMS.

Keywords: Job satisfaction, Employees, Needs assessment, Iran

Introduction

The effectiveness and productivity of an organi­zation depends on the develop­ment and nur­turing of its staff. It is nei­ther possible nor practical to increase the pro­ductivity of an or­ganization without consider­ing the optimal ex­ploiting of the staffs capa­bilities. Thus, effec­tive management and appli­cation of its appro­priate methods and proce­dures have assumed considerable importance [1].

It is commonly said that "a happy worker is an effective one" and a happy worker should be sat­isfied with his job. The importance of job sat­isfaction results from the fact that most peo­ple spend about half of their waking hours at work [2].

Job satisfaction is one of the important fac­tors playing role in job accomplishment and re­sults to greater effectiveness, efficiency and pro­duc­tivity as well as personal satisfaction feel­ings [3].

Human resources are the most valuable re­sources in an organization and assuring work­ers job satisfaction is one of the most impor­tant factors of professional accomplishment and organiza­tional efficiency and productivity [4]. Job satis­faction is one of the factors, which can moti­vate and bring about the feeling of loyalty in the workers and can be beneficial to the de­vel­opment and improvement of the organiza­tion [5]. Appropriate measurement of personnel sat­isfaction will increase the rate of staff's coop­eration and subsequently, the organization will be able to make reasonable relations be­tween work processes, clients' satisfaction, and profit­ability.

Personnel or service providers are the peo­ple who play a constructive role in the organi­zation success. Therefore, it is important for the man­agers to have a thorough and clear view of their needs and expectations and use this in planning and organizational goal setting [6]. Hence, man­agers are expected to know the im­portance of this in the measurement of work­ers perform­ance via establishing relationship with their staff. Moreover, workers are directly involved in input, output, consequences, proc­esses, per­formance and any other important as­pects of the organization; therefore, their in­vol­vement in the organization affairs and tak­ing their views into account will have the major be­nefit of increasing their cooperation in the im­prove­ment and achievement of organiza­tional aims through creating a positive organ­izational cul­ture and establishing appropriate conditions.

Management specialists believe that the in­crease in job satisfaction leads to human re­sources development, and that satisfaction is directly related to productivity so that higher satisfaction will bring about higher productivity and will consequently result in the elevation of the organization. In contrast, with the job satis­factions lowering, not only administrative de­linquencies will increase, but also much harm will be done to the organization.

Regarding the importance of satisfaction in the management of human resources develop­ment, the satisfaction level, and its influential factors should precisely be investigated so that the man­agers can plan to eradicate the influ­encing fac­tors and therefore pave the way for employ­ees satisfaction and accordingly in­creasing the ef­fec­tiveness and efficiency of the organization [7, 8].

Efficient workforce is one of the most im­por­tant resources in an organization and in fact, the central core of organization activities is based on human resources and the way they are em­ployed to perform different tasks to achieve or­ganization goals.

Because of the important role human re­sources in universities of medical sciences have in peo­ples health and sanitary, their job satis­faction needs to be investigated and appropriate solu­tions and strategies should be found to boost this satisfaction so that proper and timely ser­vices can be provided for the clients [9].

In the field of health care services, human re­sources are the most valuable and the most ex­pensive of resources; furthermore, they are the means of optimal and reasonable usage of other resources and changing them into services. This is achievable when the personnel are ade­quately motivated and are satisfied with their job.

Job satisfaction is a personal attitude toward the job and it shows how well the staffs ex­pec­ta­tions are compatible with the rewards the work or organization provides for them [10]. More­over, it is an effective factor in staff's re­taining in their positions, and influences the accom­plishment and efficiency of people and the im­provement of the quality of services they pro­vide; it is also a tool in the hands of manag­ers to maintain and preserve the personnel. Un­doubt­edly, job satis­faction is of paramount im­por­tance and due to consequences such as re­duc­tion in work absence and leave or resigna­tion, promotion of the per­sonnel and societys health as well as achieve­ment of organization goals and its elevation that it might have, it should receive the special atten­tion of the man­agers.

As it was mentioned, staffs are the most im­portant resources of an organization that di­rectly perform the organizational activities via spend­ing the other sources, and organizational success or failure is undeniably related to their job sat­isfaction. Job satisfaction is one of the constructs that has achieved a special position in the science of management [7].

Noting the importance of job satisfaction for the success of an organization and noting the lack of significant research projects in this re­gard, this study aimed at investigating the job satisfaction of workers in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences (Shahroud, northern Iran), and tried to determine the factors that might influence em­ployees job satisfaction.

Methods

This research was a cross-sectional and ap­plied study. Noting the previous studies done on this area and using the complete list of the workers in the university, a sample of 384 peo­ple were selected through simple random sam­pling with a confidence interval of 95% and an error of 5%. The target population included 1300 work­ers in the related units of the univer­sity. The data were collected using a self-filled question­naire. The job satisfaction question­naire in­cluded 33 Likert items (8 general items and 25 items related to job satisfaction facets such as work, supervisor, coworkers, and pro­motion. The maximum average score of every facet was five and total score, which showed the overall or global satisfaction, equaled 20. Va­lidity of ques­tionnaire was verified by experi­enced ex­perts and the reliability index of the present ques­tionnaire found for Cronbachs Al­pha was 0.92.  

The data obtained was analyzed with SPSS software, version 11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Data are given as mean±SD for quanti­ta­tive variables and counts as well as percent­ages for categorical variables. Chisquare test for nomi­nal variables and Student's t-test (two-tailed) were used to determine the significance of dif­ference between two numeric variables. One-way analysis of variance was applied to deter­mine the significant differences between job sat­isfaction facets. Level of statistical sig­nifi­cance was chosen 5%.

Results

From 384 participants, 53.4% were male, 46.6% were female, and the overall satisfaction mean score was 13.02±2.9. Analysis of vari­ance showed no significant relationship be­tween the overall satisfaction mean score and gender, education level, job experience, kind of em­ployment and age (Table1).

Comparing the overall satisfaction mean score based on the level of education, showed that increasing the level of education, caused the mean of satisfaction to increase, although it was not statistically significant. Regarding the age of the participants, workers with the age of 50 yr and higher showed higher levels of job satisfaction.

Table1: Satisfactions mean scores and t-test results based on age, gender, level of education, work experi­ence

Variable

Mean

V

Gender


0.7

Male

12.95±2.88


Female

13.07±2.85

Level of education


0.745

Under  high school diploma

12.84±2.77


High school diploma

12.69±2.61

Associate degree

12.95±3.25

BA/BS degree

13.16±2.98

MA/MS degree

13.75±2.53

Work experience


0.59

Less than 10 years

12.79±2.62


10-20 years

13.08±3.05

20-30 years

13.28±3.05

Type of employment


0.08

Official

13.08±2.89


Short-term (Peymani)

12.17±2.96

Public commitment

13.25±2.28

Short-term (Gharardadi)

19.13

Age


0.94

25-34 years old

13.04±2.49


35-44 years old

12.98±3.07

45-54 years old

12.95±3.36

55 years old

13.88±2.88

Table 2 shows mean scores of the different fac­ets of job satisfaction as wells as the corre­lation coefficients of these facets with the over­all sat­isfaction. As the results indicate the high­est cor­relation is between the overall satisfac­tion and supervisor, and between overall satis­fac­tion and coworkers (r= 0.82).

Table 2: Correlation of overall satisfaction and facets of satisfaction

Facet of Satisfaction

Mean

Correlation

P.V

Work

3.43±0.69

0.67

0.001

Supervisor

3.27±1.08

0.82

0.001

Coworkers

3.3±0.91

0.82

0.001

Promotion

3.02±1.02

0.76

0.001

Overall Satisfaction

13.02



The leading factors influencing the work facet of satisfaction in the staff were feeling of hav
­ing a useful and valuable job, being inter­ested in the job, feeling of usefulness in the work en­vironment, taking pride in the job, feel­ing of goal accomplishment, having non-mo­notonous job and continuous on-the-job training.

The main factors influencing the coworker facet of satisfaction in the staff hierarchically were friendly manners of coworkers, intelli­gence, and capability of coworkers, responsi­bility of coworkers and team working.

The major factors influencing the supervisor facet of satisfaction in the staff hierarchically were having qualified supervisors, providing assistance and counseling to workers by the supervisor, respecting the staffs opinions and suggestions by the supervisors, and giving feed­back to workers on their job performance.

The most important factors influencing the pro­motion facet of satisfaction in the staff hier­archically were suitable and justifiable job pro­motion merely based on capability not fa­vorit­ism, and providing the staff with facilities to pursue their education.

Discussion

Results of data analysis indicate that the staff views facets of work, coworker, supervisor, and promotion as the most important facets of job satisfaction. All the hypotheses of the study on the relationship between the overall satis­faction and the facets were statistically con­firmed. It was also shown that there was not a significant relationship between overall satis­faction and factors such as gender, age, and level of educa­tion, work experience, and type of employ­ment. These findings are in accor­dance with the re­sults of a study done in Ghaz­vin [11]. Moreover, the findings of this study are in line with those of Kamkary [8] who also found a significant relationship between overall satis­faction and gender. However, the studies by Dehbashi [12] and Ranai Ashkiki [10] did not show such a re­lationship.

Despite the findings of Dehbashi [12], Ranai Ashkiki [10], Koari [13], Mirbagheri [14], Kho­shbakht [15] and Azarbin [16], the results of this study did not show any significant relationship between overall job satisfaction and factors such as level of education, age, work experi­ence, and type of employment. Narimani [17] found a significant relationship between the level of edu­cation and job satisfaction. He stated that with the increase of level of educa­tion, the job sat­is­faction of the employees would also increase. This finding does not ac­cord with our results. 

Conclusion

At SUMS, measures such as  im­proving job promotion processes, training  and enabling the managers  and following merit sys­tem in their appointment and promotion, apply­ing cooperative management methods, providing and improving friendly work envi­ronments, giv­ing feedback to workers on their performance and respecting workers beliefs as well as ideas have led to the overall job satis­faction of the workers, and taking these factors more into ac­count will also bring about better performance and effectiveness of workers and ultimately the accomplishment of organiza­tional goals.

Acknowledgements

The researchers would like to express their grati­tude to all workers and employees in Shah­roud University of Medical Sciences for their par­ti­cipation in the study. The authors de­clare that they have no conflicts of interest. This study was supported by Shahroud University of Medical Sciences Research Council.

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