Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

Farzad Jalilian, Shohreh Emdadi


Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level.

Results: Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear program. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.002) between family history of cervical cancer and undergoing regular Pap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (P < 0.001) between age and undergoing regular Pap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23].

Conclusion: Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular Pap-smear test.


Pap smear;Cervical cancer;Subjective norms

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