Effectiveness of E-Learning Program in Preventing WP Smoking in Adolescent Females in West of Iran by Applying Prototype-Willingness Model: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Saeed Bashirian, Majid Barati, Manoochehr Karami, Behrooz Hamzeh, Elahe Ezati


Background: Given the increasing trend of Water pipe (WP) smoking in adolescent females, it is necessary to use effective educational strategies in preventing WP smoking in developing countries. We aimed to determine effectiveness of e-learning program in preventing WP smoking in adolescent females west of Iran using prototype-willingness model.

Study Design: A randomized controlled trial.

Methods: This study was performed on 221 adolescent females in Kermanshah City, Iran during 2019-2020. Multistage random sampling was used. Data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire based on prototype-willingness model. E-learning-based intervention program included 5 training sessions. Participants were followed up for 3 months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, prototype, intention, and behavioral willingness structures were similar in both experimental and control groups before the educational intervention. However, after educational interventions, mean scores of structures of positive attitude towards WP, subjective norms about WP smoking, positive prototype about WP smokers, intention, and behavioral willingness towards WP smoking were decreased in the experimental group. Moreover, frequency of WP smoking was decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group after the educational intervention (P=0.003).

Conclusion: The use of e-learning-based interventions is an educational strategy for reducing WP smoking in adolescent females.


Adolescent; Female; Water pipe smoking

Full Text: PDF

JRHS Office:

School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shaheed Fahmideh Ave. Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran

Postal code: 6517838695, PO box: 65175-4171

Tel: +98 81 38380292, Fax: +98 81 38380509

E-mail: jrhs@umsha.ac.ir