Longitudinal Modeling of Non-Pharmacological Factors Related to Frequency, Severity and Duration in Both Migraine and Tension-Type Headaches

Somaye Hosseini, Reyhaneh Rikhtehgaran, Mohammad Saadatnia, Alireza Zandifar, Marjan Mansourian


Background: Frequency, severity, and duration of attacks are some major parameters in headache management, affected by some other factors. Ignoring these factors in headache-related studies can lead to incorrect results. We aimed to model both socio-demographic characteristics and headache-associated symptoms related to frequency, severity and duration of headache attacks.

Study design: A longitudinal panel study.

Methods: Overall, 275 migraines or tension Type Headache (TTH) patients were visited at three different times in 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. On the first visit socio-demographic characteristics and headache symptoms of the patients were asked. In all of the visits, headache frequency, severity and attack duration were recorded.

Results: Frequency of headaches was influenced by headache type, age, job status, working hours, residency, disease duration, laterality, and type of pain onset. In terms of intensity, headaches were more severe in patients with migraine-type; those suffering from longer headache history; and those who suffered from vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia. On the other hand patients with migraine, married people, women and patients suffering from vomiting experienced longer headache attacks.

Conclusion: Headache type (migraine/TTH), age, job status, residency, years of headache, laterality, type of onset, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia were the factors to be considered in the studies that would apply frequency, severity, and duration of headache attacks in order to evaluate headache management.


Migraine; Tension-Type headache; Frequency; Pain scales

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