J Res Health Sci. 2024;24(1): e00604.
doi: 10.34172/jrhs.2024.139
  Abstract View: 68
  PDF Download: 31

Original Article

How Do Genetic and Environmental Factors Influence Cardiometabolic Risk Factors? Findings from the Isfahan Twins Study

Mojgan Gharipour 1,2 ORCID logo, Minoo Dianatkhah 3 ORCID logo, Shayesteh Jahanfar 4, Ana Paula dos Santos Rodrigues 5, Ava Eftekhari 6, Noushin Mohammadifard 3, Nizal Sarrafzadegan 3,7* ORCID logo, Cesar de Oliveira 8 ORCID logo, Erika Aparecida Silveira 5,8

1 Heart Failure Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 School of Medicine, Faculty of Health at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia
3 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, USA
5 Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
6 Interventional Cardiology Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
7 Faculty of Medicine, School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
8 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, London, UK
*Corresponding Author: Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Email: nizal.sarrafzadegan@ubc.ca, Email: n.sarrafzadegan@gmail.com


Background: Disease-discordant twins are excellent subjects for matched case-control studies as they allow for the control of confounding factors such as age, gender, genetic background, and intrauterine and early environment factors.

Study design: A cross-sectional study.

Methods: Past medical history documentation and physical examination were conducted for all participants. Fasting venous blood samples were taken to measure fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid levels. The ACE model, a structural equation model, was used to assess heritability.

Results: This study included 710 twin pairs (210 monozygotic and 500 dizygotic) ranging in age from 2 to 52 years (mean age: 11.67±10.71 years). The study was conducted using participants from the Isfahan Twin Registry (ITR) in 2017. Results showed that in early childhood (2-6 years), height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were influenced by shared environmental factors (76%, 75%, and 73%, respectively). In late childhood (7-12 years), hip circumference, waist circumference (WC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were found to be highly heritable (90%, 76%, and 64%, respectively). In adolescents, height (94%), neck circumference (85%), LDL-cholesterol (81%), WC (70%), triglycerides (69%), weight (68%), and BMI (65%) were all found to be highly or moderately heritable. In adult twins, arm circumference (97%), weight (86%), BMI (82%), and neck circumference (81%) were highly heritable.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in influencing individuals at different stages of their lives. Notably, while certain traits such as obesity have a high heritability during childhood, their heritability tends to decrease as individuals transition into adulthood.

Please cite this article as follows: Gharipour M, Dianatkhah M, Jahanfar S, Rodrigues APdS, Eftekhari A, Mohammadifard N, et al. How do genetic and environmental factors influence cardiometabolic risk factors? findings from the Isfahan twins study. J Res Health Sci. 2024; 24(1):e00604. doi:10.34172/jrhs.2024.139
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Submitted: 21 Nov 2023
Revision: 15 Jan 2024
Accepted: 17 Feb 2024
ePublished: 15 Mar 2024
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