J Res Health Sci. 2024;24(1): e00602.
doi: 10.34172/jrhs.2024.137
  Abstract View: 74
  PDF Download: 41

Original Article

A Good Night’s Sleep in Malta in 2023: A Cross-sectional Study Exploring Sleep Quality and its Determinants via Social Media

Elizabeth Grech 1* ORCID logo, Sarah Cuschieri 2,3 ORCID logo

1 Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta
2 Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta
3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Canada
*Corresponding Author: Elizabeth Grech, Email: elizabeth.grech.5@gov.mt


Background: Sleep quality is affected by a plethora of different factors, although its relationship with chronic diseases is still unclear. This study explored perceived sleep quality and its associated determinants among the adult population of Malta.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Methods: An anonymous online survey was distributed through social media targeting adults residing in Malta. Data pertaining to socio-demographic, medical history, lifestyle, well-being, sleep, and daytime sleepiness were gathered, and descriptive, univariant, and multiple binary logistic regression modelling analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 855 adults responded, out of whom 35.09% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.90, 38.41) reported sleep difficulties, especially females (81.33%; 95% CI: 76.36, 85.49), while 65.33% (95% CI: 59.61, 70.65) reported suffering from chronic disease(s). Sleep problems were positively associated with multimorbidity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.40; P=0.001), sleeping<6 hours (OR: 3.79; 95% CI: 1.54, 9.30; P=0.040), and the presence of moderate anxiety symptoms (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.59; P=0.020). They were also related to the presence of mild (OR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.46, 3.45; P=0.001), moderate (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.64; P=0.010), and moderately severe (OR: 15.35; 95% CI: 4.54, 31.86; P=0.001) depressive symptoms after adjusting for confounders.

Conclusion: Chronic conditions, including anxiety and depression, along with short sleep duration, appear to contribute to poor sleep quality in Malta. A multifaceted approach is required to deal with the issue holistically and safeguard the health of current and future generations.

Please cite this article as follows: Grech E, Cuschieri S. A good night’s sleep in malta in 2023: a cross-sectional study exploring sleep quality and its determinants via social media. J Res Health Sci. 2024; 24(1):e00602. doi:10.34172/jrhs.2024.137
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Submitted: 19 Oct 2023
Revision: 10 Jan 2024
Accepted: 07 Mar 2024
ePublished: 18 Mar 2024
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